|Overview : |
Tanzania is one of the countries that continue to suffer from the adverse impacts of climate change and related hazards. Climate change poses serious risks to Tanzania’s development, poverty reduction efforts and to the economic and social fabric of the country. In the last 40 years for instance, Tanzania has experienced severe recurring droughts and floods events with devastating effects to agriculture, water and energy sectors among others. While climate change affects everyone, everywhere, the poor and other marginalized segments of society are especially vulnerable to climate change since their livelihoods are often highly dependent on natural resources that are sensitive to climate variability. Climate change also impacts men and women differently, given their different roles and responsibilities at the household and community levels. Women are more exposed and vulnerable to climate change because they are often poorer, receive less education and are less involved in political and household decision-making processes that affect their lives. Tanzania’s ability to address the current and projected impacts of climate change is hindered by a number of factors including inadequate institutional arrangements, inadequate financial resources, insufficient technological capacities, low awareness and inadequate climate change information management.
The Government of United Republic of Tanzania has undertaken a number of initiatives to address climate change concerns in the country. It has ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol in 1996 and 2002 respectively as a step towards ensuring that climate change issues are addressed at the national level. Through the Division of Environment which is both the National Climate Change Focal Point and Designated National Authority (DNA) for Clean Development Mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol, has prepared the Initial National Communication in 2003, National Adaptation Action Plan (NAPA) in 2007, the National Environment Policy (1997) which is under review, the Environment Management Act (R.E Cap 191) and the National Climate Change Strategy (2012). The National Development Vision 2025 and National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty (NSGRP/MKUKUTA II, 2010/11-2015) that also address climate change issues.
The concept of NAMAs emerged from UNFCCC process and is broadly understood as an initiative that reduces greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions in developing countries while contributing to sustainable development. NAMAs refer to any action that reduces emissions in developing countries andis prepared under the umbrella of a national government initiative. NAMAs can be in form of policies directed at transformational change within an economic sector, or actions across sectors for a broader national focus. NAMAs are supported and enabled by technology, financing, and capacity-building and are aimed at achieving a reduction in emissions relative to 'business as usual' emissions by 2020. NAMAs are defined in two contexts:
- At the National Level as a formal submission by Parties declaring intent to mitigate GHGs emissions in a manner commensurate with their capacity and in line with their National Development goals;
- At the individual action level as detailed actions or groups of actions designed to help a country meet their mitigation objectives within the context of their national development goals.
Although Tanzania has negligible contribution to global GHG emissions (0.9 tons of GHG per capital), the country has joined global efforts in addressing emission reductions by promoting use of low carbon technologies in the context of sustainable development. The transport sector is one of the potential sectors where national mitigation efforts can be promoted to contribute to global initiatives to reduce GHG emissions. For example, the transport sector in Tanzania consumes about 70% of fossil fuels.
Tanzania is among 25 countries which are implementing Low Emission Capacity Building (LECB) Programme. The Programme launched in January 2011 covers five broad areas of work namely:
- Establishment of National Greenhouse Gas (GHGs) inventory management systems;
- Formulation of Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) and/or Low-Emission Development Strategies (LEDS) in the context of the national development agenda;
- Designing of Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) systems to support implementation and evaluation of NAMAs and LEDS;
- Facilitating the design and adoption of mitigation actions by selected industries; and
- Supporting the design of the associated MRV systems for industrial mitigation measures.
Through support from UNDP, an early stage NAMAs concept note on the implementation of the Dar es salaam Bus Rapid Transport (DART-BRT) Phase III and IV was developed by the local consultant under the leadership of the focal person at the Department of Environment at the Vice President’s Office.
UNDP in collaboration with VPO is now seeking to recruit a reputable international consultant to support in the development of a framework for the implementation of the above-mentioned NAMAs concept. The consultant is expected to review the concept note in line with Government development plans and strategies, and based on experiences from other countries advise on the effective institutional, technical and financial frameworks to be put in place to ensure successfully implementation of the concept on the ground in a shorter time-frame.