|Overview : |
Natural resources management in the Kalahari landscape is characterized by competition and conflict between conservation goals, economic development and livelihoods. Home to large herds of angulates and iconic predators, the landscape was dominated by low-density wildlife with hunter-gatherer livelihoods until borehole farming enabled cattle ranching a few decades ago. The consequent rangeland degradation and ecosystem fragmentation threatens wildlife and economic development.
Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs) meant to support wildlife-based economic activities and secure migratory corridors linking the Kgalagadi Trans-Frontier Park and the Central Kalahari Game Reserve continue to be lost to livestock encroachment, due to delayed gazettement. Wildlife is under additional threat from poaching, wildlife poisoning and illegal wildlife trade (IWT). The recent ban on hunting has reduced benefits from Community Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) program which in the context of Botswana has largely been based on consumptive use (i.e. hunting) of wildlife, arguably reducing incentives for conservation. Stakeholders lack the planning tools, institutional coordination and operational capacities to balance competing needs and optimize environment, social and economic outcomes.