|Overview : |
Mozambique is a Least Developed Country in Southern Africa. with a population of 28.86 million people (52.2 percent women).
For two decades, economic growth in Mozambique has averaged over 7 percent annually, making it one of the top ten fastest-growing economies in the world, and indicating its potential for inclusive, sustainable development. Its economic growth, driven mainly by primary commodities’ exports, such as, aluminium, coal and electricity, declined to 4.3% in 2016 due to continued fiscal tightening, investment slowdown, and the debt crisis. In 2017, extractive sector’s exports are, however, expected to increase and drive growth back up to 5.5%. The country’s hopes are relying strongly in the gas discovery and exploitation, as the medium-term source for employment and national revenues. The Government foresees investments in the extractive sector as the catalyst for industrialization and diversification of economy that will lead the country to middle-income status, by 2053.
The UNDP Human Development Report 2016 ranks Mozambique as a low human development country (181/188 countries), with a Human Development Index of 0.418, a life expectancy of 55.5 years, 9.1 expected years of schooling, 3.5 mean years of schooling and a gross national income per-capita of US$ 1,098.
The country has made important progress in different areas of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However significant challenges remain. The latest national poverty assessment, released in October 2016, indicates that in 2014/2015, 46.1% of the population was still living below the poverty line
with asymmetries at the regional and provincial level. Notwithstanding a 5.6% reduction in poverty incidence from the previous poverty assessment, in absolute terms the number of poor people in Mozambique has remained relatively unchanged. Therefore, close to 13 million of Mozambicans, a little less than the total population of 28,8 million, are still poor. High levels of poverty are compounded with high inequality. The country´s Gini Coefficient was 0.47, in 2008. In 2015, Mozambique ranked 139th, out of 188 countries, in the Gender Inequality Index (0.574), with high levels of maternal mortality (489 deaths per 100,000 live births). Women’s share in parliament was 39.6% in 2015, and their labour force participation rate stands at 82.5% for ages 15 and older.
The country faces high level of vulnerabilities to natural disasters. In March 2019, several areas of Mozambique were severely affected by the cyclone Idai, with thousands of fatal victims and millions in damages. Also, in April cyclone Kenneth impacted the northern part of the country. Starting in 2016, the country’s economy suffered a severe contraction because of the fall in commodity prices and the El-Nino drought. The country crisis deepened later the same year, following the disclosure of USD 2.2 billion loans contracted at commercial rates and the country’s multiple defaults on its sovereign commitments. This led to a freeze in donor support to the national budget and the suspension of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) Mozambique programme. At the same time, tensions between the Government and the main opposition party gave way to a rise in military hostilities.
A year later Mozambique President and the leader of Renamo, the main opposition party signed a peace agreement calling for greater decentralization and the reintegration of ex-combatants. In 2019 provincial governors will be elected for the first time and ex-combatants are being re-integrated.
To strengthen the coherence of national processed related to the SDGs, UNDP has signed with the Ministry of Economy and Finance (MEF), the project “SDGs Integration into Mozambique´s Planning and Budgeting”. The prior aims at strengthening capacities for whole-of-government and whole-of-society approaches to manage complex interventions and to enhance inclusiveness. This entails technical and organizational support to MEF’s technical, policy and financing coordination to ensure convergence of its efforts in integrated planning and budgeting, setting up an integrated financing framework, mobilizing resources and supporting the adoption of a results-based management system with a strong focus on SDG 1 – Poverty Eradication and SDG 10 - Reducing Inequalities. Other SDGs that will be consider are SDG 5 - Gender Equality; SDG 8 - Decent Work and Economic Growth, SDG 13 - Climate Action and SDG 16 - Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions. This will be in sync with the Transforming Aspirational GoM’s long term National Strategy for Economic Development (Estratégia Nacional de Desenvolvimento Económico – ENDE).
The project’s theory of change suggests an integrated approach that addresses three interlinked challenges that form the basis for the project’s outputs:
1. Priority Sustainable Development Goals integrated into national planning and budgeting
2. Financing for the Sustainable Development Goals improved
3. Advocacy and Engagement with the Sustainable Development Goals enhanced
The project will use existing institutional framework and processes to strengthen the political space for citizen participation in the national dialogue about good governance and inclusive economic development. This will be achieved through three outputs:
Output 1. Priority Sustainable Development Goals integrated into national planning and budgeting,
Output 2. Financing for the Sustainable Development Goals improved, and
Output 3. Advocacy and Engagement with the Sustainable Development Goals enhanced.
The results framework follows the guidance of Agenda 2030 and the SDGs and is aligned with national policies and strategies, UNDP country Document programme (CPD), United Nations Development Assistance Plan 2017-2020 and other relevant frameworks.
To support the successful implementation of the Project, UNDP Mozambique is recruiting a Technical Specialist as project coordinator and manager.